Public Lab Wiki documentation



Air Quality



Outdoor air pollution, in the most extreme cases, can be immediately identified even without any special training. It casts a haze over cities, collects on streets and buildings, and provides dramatic fodder for the news. But while high drama is often a prerequisite for news about air quality to be reported, the real story is the health impacts that occur even when the air isn't thick enough to see.

Introduction

According to the EPA, Americans, on average, spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors, where the concentrations of some pollutants are often 2 to 5 times higher than typical outdoor concentrations. Most pollutants affecting indoor air quality come from sources inside buildings, although some originate outdoors. Typical pollutants of concern include combustion products such as carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and environmental tobacco smoke; substances of natural origin such as radon; biological agents such as molds; pesticides; lead; asbestos; ozone (from some air cleaners); and various volatile organic compounds from a variety of products and materials.

This is even more striking when the health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) rank among the risk factors with the highest health impacts in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths. In October 2013, the World Health Organization announced they are considering particulate matter, a major component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, as a Group 1 carcinogen along with tobacco smoke and asbestos.

Example Air Pollution Regulations in Wisconsin:

VIOLATIONS RELEVANT PROVISION
Air pollution which is defined as the presence of smoke, dust, gases, fumes in the air. The presence of these substances must also lead to injury on humans, animals or plants as well as interfere with the enjoyment of life or one's property. NR 400.02
Fugitive dust. This refers to the presence in the air of dust from sources such as open fields and piles. There will be a violation on air quality when during handling, transporting and storing of materials, the people undertaking these activities do not take precaution and some of these materials end up being released into the air. NR 415.04
Causing, allowing or permitting solid or liquid hazardous substances into the air. This includes dust, soot, pollen, smoke and liquid droplets. One can spot that violation by simply observing the ambient air. NR. 415.05
Industrial sand mines that do not take precautions to ensure dust does not escape into the air. NR 415.075

Subtopics

Title Updated Version Views
Filters 2 months ago by warren 11 2
Air Sensors 6 months ago by warren 11 1
PM Tools 6 months ago by warren 3 0
Odor 8 months ago by imvec 30 3
Introduction to Particulate Matter 9 months ago by liz 86 7
Particle Sensing 11 months ago by warren 25 5
Optical Monitoring of Particulate Matter about 1 year ago by warren 23 4
Silica Monitoring about 1 year ago by warren 14 4
Dust Sampling over 1 year ago by warren 4 1


Questions

Title Author Updated Likes
What is the correct AQI measure ? @sagarpreet 17 days ago
How to interpret PMS5003 sensor values? @samr new contributor 19 days ago
Is there a predictive relationship between the number of PM 2.5 and smaller airborne particulates compared to the mass of the same ug per cubic meter? @Tomp new contributor 19 days ago
Where can diffusion tubes for detecting nitrogen dioxide be found in different parts of the world? @warren about 2 months ago
Seeking sources of local wind/weather data @warren 2 months ago
How to start air monitoring project? @shannonkmcalpine 3 months ago
Building a case against Aluf Plastics -- polluting my town & I need help @michaelwma 4 months ago
What do we know about EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) data? @warren 6 months ago
How can we connect a PMS5003 dust sensor to an Arduino? @warren 6 months ago
Can biosolids promote certain types of mold growth in buildings? @zengirl2 7 months ago
Low-cost air quality sensors to measure PM2.5, PM10? @bigmit37 8 months ago
Air quality balloons - an updated version? @cindy_excites 9 months ago
Is there someone who can help pull and analyze Purple Air data? @stevie 11 months ago
Looking for hands-on help with a datalogger! @Bronwen about 1 year ago
Can MiniVol (TAS Particulate Matter Monitor) measure Black Carbon or Elemental Carbon? @stevie about 1 year ago
Hey @matthew I am trying to build same PPM kit you guys have here. Where did you guys get the sampler stub? @Matej about 1 year ago
what data-logger will work with my portable HCHO meter? @nshapiro about 1 year ago
Lego Spectrometer suitable for studying sunlight? @jsbonillam about 1 year ago
3 particle type @Ag8n about 1 year ago
What are good humidity sensor/monitors to use with gas sampling kits? @gretchengehrke about 1 year ago
Anyone in Ontario working on ultrafine particle pollution? @liz about 1 year ago
What are different ways to collect respirable dust samples for analysis? @warren about 1 year ago
What kind of Framework for Participatory PM2.5 can be used for creating monitoring cities? @stevie over 1 year ago
What is the best way to take a sample of snow to look for particulates? @stevie over 1 year ago
What are ways to make DIY filters to remove particulate pollution from indoor air? @zengirl2 over 1 year ago
What are some ways to collect dust or particulate samples for analysis? @warren over 1 year ago
Training in odor identification? @sara over 1 year ago
How do I choose between different types of air canisters for grab sampling? @stevie over 1 year ago
What are the relative rates of hydrogen sulfide oxidation in ambient air? @gretchengehrke over 1 year ago
Methods for or experience measuring workplace hydrogen sulfide gas? @gretchengehrke over 1 year ago
What type of health issues are associated with inhalation of ultrafine particles? @liz over 1 year ago
What do the terms attainment and nonattainment mean? @liz over 1 year ago
How do you account for signal drift with sensors in the field? @gretchengehrke over 1 year ago
Do you have resources on odor logs and odor reporting platforms? @gretchengehrke almost 2 years ago
What are the health effects related to fine particles of calcium carbonate? @stevie almost 2 years ago
AERMOD: Is it a good model? How has it been tested and verified? @marlokeno over 2 years ago
lightweight air quality sensors for a weather balloon @glenc over 2 years ago
What kind/size of microdust does activated carbon give off & how much of a concern is it? @jfrankamp over 2 years ago
In the plant based air purifier, could airflow go the other way, using an unmodified pump? @warren over 2 years ago
How can i know if my plant-based air filter is working? @liz over 2 years ago
Is CALPUFF a good air quality modeling tool @marlokeno over 2 years ago
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Activities

Purpose Category Status Author Time Difficulty Replications
Solar Powered Air Quality Sensor - - @nicholas - - 0 replications: Try it »
Inexpensive HEPA Filter Fan project to reduce air pollution - - @Melissa - - 0 replications: Try it »

Add an activity  or request an activity

Activities should include a materials list, costs and a step-by-step guide to construction with photos. Learn what makes a good activity here.

Particle Sensor Projects

Public Lab has initiated a Particle Sensing Project focused primarily on Silica. This project overlaps with and includes the DustDuino and is coordinated on the Air-Quality Google Group.

A variety of particle sensors have been posted on the site:

Title Updated Version Views
Simple Air Sensor 16 days ago by liz 20 2
PurpleAir 18 days ago by warren 15 2
MACA 12 months ago by nanocastro 4 5
MiniVol TAS Particulate Matter Monitor about 1 year ago by warren 44 1
DustDuino over 1 year ago by warren 26 7
pDR-1500 almost 2 years ago by mathew 6 2


Air quality projects

Title Updated Version Views
Air Quality Class about 1 month ago by warren 60 3
Air Column Monitor about 6 years ago by liz 10 1
Roomba indoor air quality mapping almost 8 years ago by warren 1 2


Resources

U.S. EPA Standards and Test Methods

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Section 109 of the Clean Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requisite to protect public health with an adequate margin of safety (primary standard) and for the protection of public welfare (secondary standard). Section 109(d)(1) of the CAA requires EPA to complete a thorough review of the NAAQS at 5-year intervals and promulgate new standards when appropriate.

Complete details of the standards, measurement principles, and data interpreation, can be found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 50

Summary of the NAAQS Criteria Pollutants

EPANAAQS.gif

EPA Test Methods

EPA approved instruments are designated as either a Federal Reference Method (FRM) or Federal Equivalent Methods (FEM). The complete list of approved instruments for NAAQS evaluating is provided on the EPA Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC) web site

Real Time Data

EPA and its State and Tribal partners publish near real-time air quality data (typically hourly updates) as well air quality forecasts on the AirNow web site.

The AirNow site also contains, links to Visibility Cameras, which are yet another way to evaluate air pollution.

Examples of clear and hazy days from Boston HazeCam:

boston.jpg

Historical Data

Historical air quality test results are freely available through EPA AirData

EPA & Citizen Science Next Generation of Monitors

EPA has also been involved with Next Generation Air Measuring (link may be deprecated) and is currently offering its Citizen Science Toolbox Resources online https://www.epa.gov/air-sensor-toolbox:

  • Air Sensor Guidebook;
  • Air Sensor Technology: State of the Science Presentation;
  • Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants; and
  • Sensor Evaluation Report.

Other Resources for Air Quality Standards

The U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) and its National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) also offer a wealth of guidance. In particular, the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods is a collection of procedures for sampling and analysis of contaminants including workplace air.

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), based in Atlanta, Georgia, is a federal public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Their Toxicological Profiles, is particularly useful for when a pollutant can be identified by compound or element.

Wikis

All wiki pages relating to air quality:

Title Updated Version Views
Air Quality 10 days ago by liz 29 8
PurpleAir 18 days ago by warren 15 2
CAFO about 1 month ago by warren 2 0
Air Quality Class about 1 month ago by warren 60 3
Filters 2 months ago by warren 11 2
DIY Indoor Air Remediation Kit 6 months ago by liz 52 9
Roomba Indoor Air Quality Monitoring 6 months ago by warren 48 8
PM Tools 6 months ago by warren 3 0
Odor 8 months ago by imvec 30 3
Particle Sensing 11 months ago by warren 25 5
MACA 12 months ago by nanocastro 4 5
Optical Monitoring of Particulate Matter about 1 year ago by warren 23 4
Air Sampling about 1 year ago by warren 21 2
DustDuino over 1 year ago by warren 26 7
General Environmental Monitoring Study Strategies over 1 year ago by gretchengehrke 2 0
Formaldehyde over 1 year ago by gretchengehrke 5 1
Open Air almost 2 years ago by liz 17 5
BioBroth Bubbler almost 2 years ago by warren 3 0
Silica about 2 years ago by mathew 17 1
Refinery Watching over 3 years ago by warren 18 5
Formaldehyde Test Kit over 3 years ago by mathew 23 9
Indoor Air Quality Monitoring & Mitigation over 3 years ago by liz 48 12
Roomba Air Quality Monitoring about 4 years ago by Shannon 2 1
Pollution-to-Solution over 4 years ago by epongrat 3 0
Hydrogen Sulfide from CAFOs in Iowa almost 5 years ago by sophie 8 0
Summer CHAQ Class 1 Research Notes almost 6 years ago by msmelody 1 1
Air Quality Class 07 almost 6 years ago by liz 1 0
Air Quality Class 06 almost 6 years ago by liz 1 0
Air Quality Class 7 almost 6 years ago by liz 9 0
Cypress Hills Air Quality Initiative about 6 years ago by liz 1 1
Air Column Monitor about 6 years ago by liz 10 1
vertical atmospheric profiles about 6 years ago by liz 3 0
microbes about 6 years ago by liz 14 1
indoor air quality mapping review over 7 years ago by gonzoearth 2 0


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